Настоящее совершенное время (The Present Perfect
Present' Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, завершившегося к моменту речи и связанного с настоящим временем. На русский язык глаголы в Present Perfect в большинстве случаев переводятся в прошедшем времени. Present Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в Present Indefinite и Participle II (причастия прошедшего I времени) смыслового глагола. (или V3 глагола)
Утвердительные предложения строятся по следующему образцу:
подлежащее + have/has + смыслового +
I have read an interesting book this month.
N.B: Participle II правильных глаголов образуется путем прибавления окончания ed к инфинитиву глагола без частицы to
(для правильных глаголов).
Participle II неправильных глаголов помещено в таблице неправильных глаголов (V3)
Задание 1. Образуйте Participle II от следующих глаголов:
learn, discuss, listen, like, love, show, start, finish, speak, meet, sell, send, go, do, make, write, read, buy, order, want, see, hear, fell, drink, be, give, know.
В вопросительные предложения в Present Prefect строятся по следующему образцу:
have/has + подлежащее + смыслового +
Has he really gone to London ?
Задания 2. Задайте вопросы и ответьте на них по образцу:
Have you discussed any problems this week ?
Yes, I have. (No, I haven't)
Слова для справок: 1. To recieve guests from England; 2. To buy a new dress; 3. To go to a lecture; 4. To make an apple-pie; 5. To go to a dancing club; 6. To play football.
Present Perfect часто употребляется со словами, выражающими незаконченный период времени: today, this, week (month, year), а также с наречиями ever, never, just, которые ставятся перед смысловым глаголом.
N.B: Наречие already ставится перед смысловым глаголом в утвердительных предложениях, yet - в конце вопросительных или отрицательных предложений.
Наречия lately, recently, once и сочетания up to now, many times ставятся, как правило, в конце предложений.
Present Perfect употребляется также для выражения действия, начавшегося в предшествующий период, но еще не закончившегося. В этом случае глагол в форме Perfect переводится на русский язык, как правило, глаголом в настоящем времени, обозначающим незаконченный отрезок времени, - обстоятельства с предлогом for (for ages) или since (since morning)
Задание 3. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. I've met her before. 2. They've learned the new words. 3. He has finished his article. 4. The girl has got up very early. 5. She has made this mistake before. 6. Pete and Jane have had a long walk today.
Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, заменяя инфинитив нужной формой глагола-сказуемого.
1. "You ____________(to see) the new pictures by Andrew?" "Yes" "How you____________ (to like) it?" "I like it very much" 2. "You ever ____________ (to be) to England?" "Yes", I ____________ (to go) there last winter". 3. "Is Nick at home?" "No, he ____________ (not to come) yet". 4. I just____________ ( to finish) work and___________ (to read) a book now. 5. "Where's your sister?" "She____________ (not to come) home from school yet. I think she still ____________ (to play) tennis" 6. "You____________ (to do) the translation already? You only _____________ (to begin) it 20 minutes ago". 7. "You ________ (to finish) the work yet" Cant have a look at it?" "Certainly. I _____________ (to finish) it an hour ago". 8. "When you ____________ (to come) to Moscow?" "A week ago".
Задание 5. Закончите предложения, используя since или for.
Let's visit Aunt Emily. (Christmas) We haven't visited her since Christmas.
1. Let's invite Harry and Jane to dinner________.(March) 2. Let's play cards with the Kents________. (Weeks) 3. Let's walk round the park________. (Years) 4. Let's watch TV________. (last Friday) 5. Let's hear an opera________. (Month) 6. Let's phone our parents________. (Two weeks)
Mike is ill.(for a week) He has been ill for a week.
1. My brother is married________. (For two years) 2. I know Steve________. (Since I was a child) 3. Nick is absent________. (For a week) 4. Jack lives in London________.(since he was born) 5. Mr Morgan is away ________ (for two month) 6. Bill is unemployed________. (Since April) 7. Ann has a bad cold________ (for the last few days) 8. Trie shop is open ________ (since 8 o'clock)
Задание 6. Переведите на английский язык. Проверьте себя по ключу.
1. Где мой учебник ? Я только что оставил его здесь. 2. Виктор уже починил магнитофон? - Нет еще. 3. Вы когда-нибудь бывали в Большом театре? - Да.4. Я только что пообедал. 5. Я никогда не был в Лондоне. 6. Отец уже вернулся домой и сейчас смотрит футбол по телевизору. 7. Виктор только что вернулся из Лондона. Я не видел его с прошлого года. 8. Тим сейчас в Москве. Он живет там 6 месяцев. 9. Я не встречаю Катю с тех пор, как мы сдали последний экзамен
Задание 7. Прочитайте и переведите
1. Look! Dick has bought a record. 2. Pat hasn’t given me the book yet. 3. I’ve just come from a very important meeting. 4. He has not thought about university yet. 5. They have received a lot of letters. 6. He has forgotten her name. 7. John is hungry because he hasn’t had any breakfast. 8. We have done exercise No 2. 9. I have just spoken to my boyfriend on the phone. 10. She has planned an expensive holiday. 11. I haven’t written to my wife yet. 12. My parents have just gone out for the evening. 13. Bill has asked me for some money. 14. Helen has brought the mail. 15. Our team has won the game. 16. He has paid a lot of money for his house. 17. Oh, dear, it’s going to rain and I’ve left my umbrella at home. 18. The course has already begun. 19. I have drunk three cups of coffee. 20. Oh, I’ve cut my finger. 21. I have not sent a letter to my mother yet. 22. She hasn’t seen her parents yet. 23. I have never met him before. 24. Andrew has chosen a good present. 25. I’ve been to Paris, but I haven’t been to London yet. 26. George has taken a lot of books from the library. 27. Victor has told us an interesting story. 28. Mr Robinson has taught us English. 29. He has spent his holidays in the Caucasus. 30. They have sold their car. 31. I have made a lot of mistakes in my test. 32. Roger has lost his ticket. 33. I remember that I have put the magazine on this shelf. 34. Lucy has drawn a nice picture. 35. I have broken my umbrella. 36. Robert has become an engineer. 37. I haven’t read the article yet. 38. Have you eaten your steak? 39. Have you heard this opera before? 40. Have the police found the man yet? 41. Has he lent you any money? 42. Has Bill shown you this new car? 43. Have you signed the documents? 44. Have you caught much fish today? 45. Have you ever swum in the Atlantic Ocean?
Задание 8 . Выбери нужную форму глагола в Present Perfect или Past Simple
1. We (have travelled, travelled) about the Crimea last year. Mr. Winkle knows so much, because he (has travelled, travelled) a lot. 2. I (have seen, saw) Pete in the library today. She (has seen, saw) this film last Friday. 3. Alec (has met, met) the mechanic two hours ago. I just (have met) the doctor. 4. The children already (have decided, decided) what to do with the books. Yesterday they (have decided, decided) to help villagers. 5. Helen speaks French, because she (has been, was) in France. She (has been, was) there last year. 6. The rain (has stopped, stopped) and the sun is shining in the sky again. The rain (has stopped, stopped) half an hour ago. 7. Mary (has bought, bought) a new hat. I (have bought, bought) a pair of gloves yesterday. 8. The wind (has blown, blew) off the man’s hat, and he can’t catch it. 9. The weather (has changed, changed) and we can go for a walk. The wind (has changed, changed) in the morning.
Задание 9 . Выбери нужную форму глагола в Present Continuous or Present Perfect.
1. Wait for me a little. I (am eating, have eaten) my breakfast now. 2. Nick (is writing, has written) a letter. When he finishes, we shall go to the post office. 3. Mary (is putting, has put) plates, forks, knives and cups on the table, so we shall have dinner. 4. Look at the child. He (is carrying, has carried) a basket full of plums. 5. Bob (is washing, has washed) his hands and is ready to help you with the dinner. 6. The family just (is having, has had) tea. 7. It is 12 o’clock. Vladimir Petrovich (is having, has had) his lunch. 8. We already (are doing, have done) this exercise. Shall we read the text? 9. Tom’s sister (is learning, has learnt) the English rhyme and now she may go for a walk with her friends. 10. I just (am walking, have walked) through the field.
Задание 10. Перепишите предложения, употребляя глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present Perfect. Прочитайте написанное.
1 He ……..….. me the towel (to give). 2 You ………. not ……..…. the window (to shut). 3 I ……..… a lot of Russian books (to read). 4 It is raining and the children ………… to stay at home (to decide). 5 ……….... the mother ………..… breakfast? (to prepared) 6 ……...… you …….…… up the towel& (to hang).
Задание 11. Напишите по одному вопросу к каждому предложению, начиная их словами, данными в скобках. Прочитайте написанное.
1 They have lived in Sochi since 1979. (Where …………………………………………….…?)
2 She has drunk some milk. (Has …………………………………………….?)
3 Alec has come to see me. (Who ………………………………………….…?)
4 We have read an interesting article. (What ………………………………………….…?)
5 You have helped me very much. (What …………………………………………….?)
6 He has given Vera a letter. (Who ………………………………………….…?)
Задание 12. Перепишите предложения, употребляя глаголы, данные в скобках, в нужной форме. Прочитайте написанное.
1They have just ………….… the street. (to cross)
2 …………..… they usually ……..…..… at the “Rossiya” Hotel when they are in Moscow? (to stay)
3 They are ……………... flowers for their mother. (to buy)
4 In 1965 he ………….…… at the town hospital. (to work)
5 He sometimes ………….……. his mother to wash the dishes or to look after his little sister. (to help)
6 I ………….… not ………….…..… to wash myself with cold water when I was ten. ( to like)
Задание 13. Перепишите предложения, употребляя глаголы, данные в скобках , в нужной форме. Прочитайте написанное.
1 Yesterday I …………….… at the cinema. (to be)
2 How much … you ………….…… for this book? (to pay)
3 Have you ……………… the new film about sportsmen? (to see)
4 They have ………….…… on a Number Four bus? (to get)
5 Last Sunday she ……………… for a walk in the park. (to go)
6 I ………….…… not ……………… my breakfast yet. ( to have)
Задание 14. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. Helen speaks French so well because she ________(to live) in France. 2. She ________ (to live) there last year. 3. The rain ________ (to stop) and the sun is shining in the sky again. 4. The rain ________ (to stop) half an hour ago. 5. Mary ________ (to buy) a new hat. 6. I ________ (to buy) a pair of gloves yester- day. 7. The wind ________ (to blow) off the man's hat, and he cannot catch it. 8. The weather________ (to change), and we can go for a walk. 9. The wind________ (to change) in the morning. 10. We ________ (to travel) around Europe last year. 11. My father knows so much because he ________ (to travel) a lot. 12. I ________ (to see) Pete today. 13. She ________ (to see) this film last Sunday. 14. Alex________ (to meet) his friend two hours ago. 15. I just ________ (to meet) our teacher. 16. The children already________ (to decide) what to do with the books. 17. Yesterday they ________ (to decide) to help their grand- mother.
Задание 15. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect, Present Continuous, Present Simple или Past Simple.
1. What you ________ (to do) here at such a late hour? You________ (to write) your composition? — No, I________ (to write) it already. I________ (to work) at my report. — And when you________ (to write) your composition? — I ________ (to finish) it two days ago. 2. I say, Tom, let's have dinner. — No, thank you, I already ________ (to have) dinner. 3. What the weather ________ (to be) like? It still ________ (to rain)? — No, it ________ (to stop) raining. 4. Please give me a pencil, I ________ (to lose)mine. 5. I ________ (not to meet) Peter since Monday. 6. Nina just ________ (to finish) work. 7. Where Sergei ________ (to be)? — He________ (to go) home. He ________ (to leave) the room a minute ago.8. What you ________ (to read) now? — I (to read) "Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte. 9. They ________ (to read) "Ivanhoe" by Walter Scott a month ago. What about you? You ________ (to read) "Ivanhoe"? 10. My watch ________ (to stop). There ________ (to be) something wrong with it. 11. You________ (to see) Jack today? — Yes, I ________ (to see) him at the institute. 12. You________ (to hear) the new symphony by M.? — Yes. I .... —When you________ (to hear) it? — I________ (to hear) it last Sunday.13. You ________ (to change) so much. Anything ________ (to happen)?
Задание 16. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы
в Present Indefinite,
Present Perfect, Present Continuous,
Past Indefinite или Future Indefinite.
1. Our classes usually_________________ (begin) at 8.30 in the morning.
2. The first lesson _________________ (not to
3. I _________________ (spend) my last weekend well.
4.1 think we_________________ (travel) to the
seaside next summer.
5. The pupils _________________ (have) a break now.
1. My mother _________________ (buy) a lot of bananas yesterday.
2. We just_________________ (eat) all the bananas.
3.I think she _________________ (buy) some more bananas tomorrow.
4. Usually my dog_________________ (not to eat) fruit.
5. My dog_________________ (eat) meat now.
1. We never _________________ (swim) in the ocean.
2. We _________________ (swim) in the lake very often last summer.
3. My friend certainly_________________ (swim) in the Black Sea next month.
4. We usually _________________ (go) swimming to the swimming pool.
5. Look at the boys! They_________________ (swim) on such a cold day.
1.I already _________________ (be) to many
2.I _________________ (be) in London last year.
3.I _________________ (travel) to Canada now.
4. We hope we_________________ (visit) our American friends next summer.
5. We _________________ (visit) them every year.
1. The children _________________ (not to learn) the poem yet.
2. They _________________ (forget) to write down their homework yesterday.
3. They _________________ (get) bad marks tomorrow.
4. They _________________ (read) interesting books now.
5. They usually_________________ (do) their homework in the evening.
1.I just_________________ (have) breakfast.
2.I _________________ (eat) my breakfast a minute ago.
3. He_________________ (have) his breakfast now.
4.I know that we_________________ (have) breakfast at school next
5. When... you usually_________________ (have) breakfast?
1.I already _________________ (see) the monument
2.I _________________ (see) it when I travelled to Moscow last summer.
Задание 17. Раскройте скобки. Поставите глаголы в Present Indefinite, the Present Continuous, the Past Indefinite, the Future Indefinite, или the Present Perfect.
1. a) You father often (to take) ________ you finishing?
b) You father (to take) ________ you finishing now?
c) You father (to take) ________ you finishing last night?
d) You father (to take) ________ you finishing next time?
e) You father (to take) ________ you finishing this morning?
2. a) Which of your group something (to translate) __________articles from English into Russian?
b) Which of your group (to translate) __________articles from English into Russian now?
c) Which of your group (to translate) __________articles from English into Russian at the last lesson?
d) Which of your group (to translate) _________articles from English into Russian at the next lesson?
e) Which of your group (to translate) __________articles from English into Russian lately?
3. a) Why he usually (not to write) __________ short stories about animals?
b) Why he usually (not to write) __________ short stories about animals now?
c) Why he usually (not to write) __________ short stories about animals last year?
d) Why he usually (not to write) __________ short stories about animals next year?
e) Why he usually (not to write) __________ short stories about animals yet?
4. a) You often (to look) _______ up new words in the dictionary?
b) You (to look) _______ up new words in the dictionary now?
c) You (to look) _______ up new words in the dictionary five minutes ago?
d) You (to look) _______ up new words in the dictionary in a minute?
c) You just (to look) _______ up new words in the dictionary?
5. a) Mary something (to give) ________ sugar to the dog?
b) Mary (to give) ________ sugar to the dog now?
c) Mary (to give) ________ sugar to the dog yesterday?
d) Mary (to give) ________ sugar to the dog tomorrow?
e) Mary (to give) ________ sugar to the dog this evening?
6. a) Why we (not to cook) ___________meat every day?
b) Why we (not to cook) ___________meat now?
c) Why we (not to cook) ___________meat last week?
d) Why we (not to cook) ___________meat for the dinner?
e) Why we (not to cook) ___________meat this week?
Тексты для чтения
Getting Up the Morning
At seven o’clock in the morning the alarm-clock rings. It is time for me to get up. I don’t want to get up early, but I must.
I jump out of bed and open the window. Then I turn on the radio do my morning exercises.
When I have done my morning exercises, I go to the bathroom and wash. I clean my teeth, wash my hands face and ears with cold water and dry myself with my towel.
When I have washed myself, I brush my hair with my hairbrush.
Then I dress, I put on my shirt, trousers and jacket, my socks and my boots. Now I am ready to go to breakfast.
My sister Lena has already got up, washed herself, brushed her hair, put on her dress, tights and shoes. She is sitting at the table having her breakfast. I take my place at the table too and Mother gives me my breakfast. Father has already had breakfast and has gone to work. Mother must get up early to prepare breakfast for all the family.
Now Lena has finished her breakfast. She is going to put on her coat and run to school.
“It is eight o’clock, Boris,” Mother says to me. “It is time for you to go to school.”
I put my things in my school-bag and put my scarf and my coat on.
“Good-bye, Mum!” I say.
1 Did the boy want to get up?
2 Why did he open the window?
3 What did he do after his morning exercises?
4 What did he put on?
5 When did he put his textbooks into his bag?
6 Who said “Don’t be late”?